American air is thick with rumours of Former Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, desiring to have a go at the 2020 Presidential race.
Hillary Clinton may well have a good turnout in campaigns if she decides to contest, no doubt. It may also be something unique in American Elections, and will be more so if she wins the 2020 Election with many firsts to her credit. As at present, though, it sounds and appears oneiric.
I would like to present below three strategies for Candidate Hillary Clinton to consider, should she choose to contest. Not as any expert, but as a common man.
That she will face mounting challenges to become likeable to the voters again is a reality.
1. A Clear Vision Statement : Hillary Clinton must be feeling that 3 years have gone by too fast since her defeat to Donald Trump in 2016. She didn’t have any great moments during the period other than a published book. So she does not have much to say in terms of work life or personal highlights. In effect, she will start from where she took off in 2015 as a Democratic Primary candidate. Fortunately for her, now is the time when most politicians are fine-tuning their plans and focusing their attention on the question : ” How to create the impact that will make 2020 significant ? ” To get the right answer to this question Candidate Hillary Clinton should first make a fair, frank, and ingenuous self assessment of what she can script as her ” New Vision for America ” ; how she can set the course for America ; and how she’ll communicate her vision to the people.
That Donald Trump is dangerous and chaotic is all already sold by almost every opposition candidate not to invite anymore buy-in or hold water. Hillary Clinton should clearly define her VISION in terms of America’s place in the World through her dialogues, discourses, and deportment. That she has been the Secretary of State and visited more than 160 countries during her term will put her position strong in terms of choosing what America will be ( a Peace Progressionist ; a Guiding Star ; a Leading Light ; a World Leader or whatever) lending credibility to her arguments. She should be able to corroborate this with how her VISION will be supported in terms of Mission and Purpose for fulfillment.
2. Establishing Strategic Priorities : Once the vision is made to serve as the guide for her Campaign, she should set one or two strategic priorities to deliver beyond what Donald Trump has achieved so far. It means specifying areas of big impact that she’ll focus on. Democrats in general favor Healthcare, Climate Change, Education, Gun Control … as their main Priorities.
An example that can stand in good stead for Candidate Hillary Clinton could well be this priority : “Acquiring, developing, and implementing New Talent in Education for meeting the challenges of Healthcare, Climate Change, and Gun Control and every effort that Democrats will place in this election “.
To my knowledge, no candidate as yet has spoken very clearly in terms of how he/she will be able to tackle the challenges for the benefit of all American Citizens in any forum. The priority stated above will not be subjected to any question or criticism since it encompasses all aspects necessary for fulfillment of the VISION – Education, experience, creativity, innovation, technology, skills, training, school infrastructure and any other.
The stated priority will define the actions to be followed automatically. In any case this will take effect only after power is acquired.
3. A new Beginning from the Scratch : Candidate Hillary Clinton should also take care not to let ‘legacy’ constraints impede the attainment of the VISION , a factor that every politician succumbs to unmindful of the oftentimes damaging consequences putting their actions in jeopardy. What it means is that the most important factor at this critical period in the world ( with protests and unrest galore in different countries ; unwinding things of the past once power is grabbed ; driven by ideas touted as new without any trial or proven support ; more attention seeking than real benefit ; long on self aggrandizement and short on people welfare ; and youth centered culture revolution ; ) is how one will politically navigate the Social and Economic disruption that is now taking place for the benefit of the Society.
The Leader should be able to spot those areas where natural disruption rises, say, in Communication, Health, and Safety where the synergy not just exists clearly but progresses fast to help every citizen in their lives. This entails placing a few steps out of the ambit of the role of politicians but impels and pushes continual progress of the nation to be regarded as a great “model nation”. This is what will mark the real evolution of any Nation.
It is like what we say in the game of Cricket, ” Every test match is a new test match”. Hillary Clinton will need to consider herself starting from the scratch. This, for her, is a new election.
Conclusion : For candidate Hillary Clinton, this may also be the right opportunity to script and showcase the scenes of her tale and mark her evolution with a “New Theme”.
P.S. The above strategies are applicable to any candidate in this election , but Candidate Hillary Clinton cannot afford to keep away from this plan if she chooses to contest.
“Dieu avec nous”
Wednesday, October 30, 2019 – 2.39 p.m. (IST)
Tidbit : ” She feels entitled to do it ; she feels compelled to do it ; she feels that God put her on the Earth to do it. But she is hesitant because she realises the timing is bad. ” – Dick Morris, Former Bill Clinton adviser.
On October 27, 2019, at 9.20 a.m. (ET), President Donald Trump announced the death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in an exceptionally surprising and difficult military raid in north-west Syria.
Al Qaeda affiliated local terror outfit had sheltered the ISIS Leader.
What struck me was in the 9 to 10 minutes announcement (leave aside the question and answer session that followed), President Donald Trump didn’t mention the word “I” , that was more exciting than the killing of Al-Baghdadi himself.
President Donald Trump said : “America’s relentless pursuit of terrorists” , “our commitment to chase and kill ” , ” our reach is long” , ” We obliterated the Caliphate 100% ” , “our soldiers are the best in the world” – never taking the credit off the real people involved.
Fortune favours the brave, and the ‘soldiers’ made it happen.
This is also a good example of good leadership.
And while briefly mentioning the events (actions that the team took in the tunnel), his reference to all those who helped – be it the Syrian Kurds who helped with information ; be it the bravery displayed by the American forces involved in the operation ; be it the Joint Chief of Staff ; be it the professionals of agencies involved in the plan ; be it thanking the help from other nations like Russia, Iraq, Syria, Turkey ; be it the action ‘sprints’ of final 120 minutes by the team signifying the fullness of human cognitive capacity – President Donald Trump made our thinking actually rise to a level of a beneficiary from all those who supported it.
Gauging the hiding place of Al-Baghdadi (he kept changing places at the rate of knots) ; swooping the building with soldiers from helicopters ; breaking the compound wall in seconds to the surprise of ISIS fighters ; chasing Baghdadi through the tunnel with a dead end ; prepared to tackle the best suicide bombs ; taking parts of the body amidst the rubble quickly for the DNA tests ; charting the action plan for operational work with milestone elements (though not mentioned in any detail) – all speak for the enormity of the operation for successful completion.
That this is an exemplary method of placing his leadership role as one that will qualify easily as “Servant Leadership” with ‘Duty’ as the pivot is evident. With this he has also fulfilled the first step of his Election promise of eliminating ISIS.
World is now a safe place to live – said President Donald Trump.
Now this act remains to be seen through the lens of the citizens delivering their verdict on its effect/influence to the Society at large not just in the U.S.A. but extending to most regions in the world.
If this can further ignite the sense of self esteem and high spirits of the Leader in meeting the challenges quickly, the significance of his term of Presidency may witness a peak.
“Dieu avec nous”
Monday, October 28, 2019 – 6.49 p.m. (IST)
Tidbit : ” Capturing and killing Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi has been the top national security priority ” – President Donald Trump.
Well known for his honorificabulitudinity, Canadian PM, Justin Trudeau is on course to gain his second term today with results heading towards the possibility of a minority Government with Justin Trudeau at the helm.
As I write this Justin Trudeau’s Liberal Party commands 107 seats ; Conservative Party with 77 seats ; New Democratic Party with 17 seats ; and Bloc Quebecois securing 14 seats. Green Party is yet to open its account. Canadian Parliament has 338 seats. 170 seats are needed for majority and with the support of the left leaning parties Justin Trudeau will likely form the Government . Justin Trudeau’s Liberal Party alone is expected to win 146 seats according to predictions. The Conservatives may get 100 seats or less in the end.
Canada is a nation that strives to preserve the Democratic values internationally. It also gives life to those who suffer without any support or security in the world. Notable in this context is the Programs formulated for Sri Lankan and Syrian refugees specially. The refugees have been accommodated with humane considerations and gesture in Canada. This is one big reason that many in the world loves to live in Canada.
Justin Trudeau is a very well respected Canadian leader by crores of people across the world. Quite significant is the fact that he harbours a special love and affection for the vernacular language, Tamil. Hence, it is no surprise that he is extremely popular among Tamilians in Canada. Tamilians in Canada are mostly from Sri Lanka.
Reasons for his running short of majority on his own : Justin Trudeau has been alleged to be involved in Corruption during his stint as PM ; Justin Trudeau has been negligent to act against those few who were active participants in corruption according to reports ; and Justin Trudeau lost some of his supporters because of these allegations.
While the most significant, powerful, and big nations in the world like America, India, France .. boast of right leaning governments, Justin Trudeau’s victory breaks that Hoodoo. Canadian Tamils welcome his return in a big way.
Conclusion : Justin Trudeau’s principles and platforms mimicking the U.S. Democratic Party (Healthcare, Gun Control, Climate Change .. ) and his victory for a second term may well be the thin end of the wedge reflecting on the 2020 US General Election. I, for one, will be eager to follow the course of events in the days and months to come.
“Dieu avec nous”
Tuesday, October 22, 2019 – 2.59 p.m. (IST)
Tidbit : ” Voters rejected ‘negativity’ ” – Justin Trudeau.
” Fourth Democratic Presidential Primary Debate – Attempt to redefine Leadership ” – October 15, 2019.
Fourth Democratic Presidential Primary Debate was held tonight.
Venue : Otterbein University, Westerville, (suburb of Columbia) Ohio.
Hosted by : CNN and The New York Times.
Candidates : Former V.P. Joe Biden ; Sen. Elizabeth Warren ; Sen. Bernie Sanders ; Sen. Cory Booker ; Sen. Kamala Harris ; Mayor Pete Buttigieg ; Sen. Amy Klobuchar ; Former US Rep, Beto O’Rourke ; Former US HUD Sec. Julian Castro ; Enterpreuner Andrew Yang; Rep Hawaii, Tulsi Gabbard ; and Billionaire activist, Tom Steyer.
Issues Covered : Impeachment ; Healthcare ; Gun Violence ; Foreign Policy ; Job loss ; Income inequality ; Opioid Epidemic; Age ; Breaking Big Tech Giants ; Women’s Reproductive Rights ; and Democrats’ Vision to beat Trump.
Background : 1. Largest Presidential Primary Debate in recorded American Political History. ( 12 Candidates on the same stage in one night event ). Candidate Bernie Sanders returns after health scare on October 1.
2. The debate takes place against – (a) the chorus of agreement on the issue of Impeachment of the President ( about 225 Congressional members and all 19 candidates supporting it ), and (b) President Trump’s decision to withdraw US military forces from Syria leaving the Kurds (SDF) to wage its battle alone.
Moderators : Anderson Cooper and Erin Burnett of CNN, and Times National Editor, Marc Lacey.
Salient features that I observed :
1. It occurred to me that Sen. Elizabeth Warren stole the show with acuity, substance, and coherent arguments in this debate. She held her composure with suave replies, her policy proposal on assets more than $ 50 million , reiterating the power of the unions to create dignity of work , receiving less criticism with potential to arrest her smooth journey through the debates , and adding to her strength of impact making performance. On age factor, Sen. Elizabeth Warren emphasized the fact that it is not how old you are but what counts most is the zeal, passion, and the ability to pursue and preserve ‘National Security’ and prestige that will be the ultimate driving force behind her contest.
2. Joe Biden was confident and assertive without being aggressive even while not packing his arguments with responses to lift his position in this debate. He had a steady performance without instances of domination. On the question of age factor, Joe Biden emphasized his past experiences on most issues without a need for “on-the-job training” as the most essential requirement and Quality to shoulder the burden of Presidency.
3. Sen. Bernie Sanders seemed as clear and forceful as before, without any sign of his illness hampering his arguments , holding his position without elevation or sliding. On the question of age factor, Sen. Bernie Sanders while thanking all those who showed their love and prayers for his recovery emphasized that the big rally that will be staged on ‘Queens’, NY, will provide evidence to the citizens how passionate and healthy he is to take on the stresses of Presidency.
4. Sen. Kamala Harris was strong on Gun violence ( 5 million assault weapons are in U.S.A., ban the import of assault weapons … ); Foreign Policy ( her references to the phone call of President Trump to the Turkish President Erdogan raising the consequences in terms of boosts to Vladimir Putin, Assad, Iran, and ISIS ); Women’s access to Reproductive Healthcare (as one of the big issues in America, it is important that women are left to decide about her body ); and Breaking Big Tech Giants ( Corporate responsibility and accountability should be held high … ). She has held her position firmly without any decline. But the expected rise may not have materialised.
5. Mayor, South Bend, Indiana, Pete Buttigieg, while showing moments of traction specially on Foreign Policy, and Immigration, seemed to send a clear message of generational change. His stand against obliteration of private plans in Healthcare found its echo with some others too. He connected well with the audience and has been successful in elevating his position too.
6. Sen. Cory Booker had a steady and flat performance without much swings up or down. He was a strong supporter of anti trust measures against big tech giants for the fear that their present practices may hold the potential to undermine democracy. He favoured union strength on the question of revival of GM. He added that it would be better to increase minimum wage to $ 15/ hour as this will put more money in their pockets. He has maintained his position without significant rise or decline in this debate.
7. Businessman, Andrew Yang, provided some new ideas like taxation of technology tools, search tool, and the like that can prove to be useful. He also stuck to his Freedom Dividend of $ 1000 / month for every citizen and held the view that automation being the cause of loss of jobs in Ohio is incorrect. He instead pleaded for making the unions strong and to make representations great. He had a flat performance without any breakout moment.
8. Julian Castro, Beto O’Rourke, Tom Steyer, and Tulsi Gabbard – all needed a breakout moment to sustain the standing but failed to deliver. Tulsi Gabbard was in her best while discussing the foreign policy and Strategy to beat Trump. Tom Steyer stayed true to his reputation of Impeachment power head and Corporate activism. Beto O’Rourke had his usual plus points on immigration and gun control but without any new additions. Julian Castro made his presence felt on immigration, and breaking the tech giants but couldn’t capitalise on them fully.
9. Today’s Prize certainly goes to Sen. Amy Klobuchar whose stellar performance must have elevated her standing several notches above. Be it Impeachment ( she drew attention to the President’s phone call to Ukraine President, withdrawal of troops in Syria, how the dangerously polarised nation needs to unify – all within the first 15 minutes of the debate session ) ; be it Healthcare ( need for a better way to take on pharmaceutical companies while she took on Sen. Elizabeth Warren on the issue of cost of healthcare – receiving loud and big applauses twice ) ; be it Income Inequality ( while strongly supporting the Unions that made her father and mother survive and grow amid challenges, she emphasized that unions empathise with the challenge of a difficult work environment and suggest options for employees to empower themselves that shifts the work culture positively. Work is not a chore, but seeks meaning and talents ) ; be it Foreign Policy ( her insistence on a bipartisan Election bill to tackle meddling in elections ) ; be it Opioid Epidemic ( Treatment is better than ban or punishment citing her father’s case strengthening the case for holding the pharmaceutical companies accountable ) ; be it strategy to beat Trump ( she is capable of erecting a “blue wall” around the states that Trump won last time – Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin … ) ; she was soft and spirited in building her case to near perfection. She must have elevated her standing and ranking considerably from this debate.
The last question was about ‘friendship that surprised and had an impact on the candidate’ : Here are the answers :
1. Julian Castro : “We should not feel ashamed of holding anyone accountable in life. Values and ideals should reflect in life”.
2. Tulsi Gabbard : ” Inspired by Abe Lincoln’s malice to none, and charity to all”. Trey Gowdy, Republican, stood in her support in difficult times.
3. Amy Klobuchar : ” Nothing to be afraid of fighting for a cause larger than life “. She talked about John McCain.
4. Tom Steyer : ” When you see something wrong in the Society, you start fighting each day, each day, again.” He talked about a woman fighting for clean water in South Carolina.
5. Beto O’Rourke : ” Working on any contentious issue, do not see differences in affiliation.”
6. Cory Booker :. ” Restore the sacred honour. Part of legacy of a common cause and common struggle. “
7. Andrew Yang : ” Turn the clock forward, accelerate economy, and enhance values. ” He talked about a trucker, a Trump supporter to support his 4th Industrial Revolution.
8. Kamala Harris : ” American ideals, dreams, and values shall always hold. Look for commonalities amongst us to take the lead. Leader should unify the country. “
9. Pete Buttigieg : ” Build a sense of belonging for the country. Learn to trust each other. “
10. Bernie Sanders : ” We have to end the hatred. Our job is to bring people together. Each citizen shall strive for this “.
11. Elizabeth Warren : ” 2020 is a moment in our History. I know what is broken, I know how to fix it. “
12. Joe Biden : ” Restore the soul of the country. It is time we stopped our wranglings. “
Conclusion : Vision, strategic priorities, and innovation opportunities to be accomplished constituted the major part of responses from candidates without actually referring to them explicitly in terms of terminology. Sen. Amy Klobuchar reaped the most in this debate. Atleast 5 candidates added another layer to their reputation that probably can help them overcome any adverse polling.
” Dieu avec nous “
Wednesday, October 16, 2019 – 11.29 a.m. (IST).
Tidbit : ” He said he wants to make America great again ; it actually makes Russia great again. ” – Sen. Amy Klobuchar.
” Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences 2019 – Experimental Research takes the Cake ” – October 14, 2019.
Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel (2019) has been announced just now.
The prize has been awarded jointly to Abhijit Banerjee , Ether Duflo, and Michael Kremer. Significantly the threesome sports a lady (2nd lady to receive the Economic Sciences Nobel after Elinor Ostrom in 2009), Ether Duflo whose contribution is drawn to a new set of ideas in development economics including experimental research.
“Experimental approach to alleviation of Global poverty” is the essence of their contribution. Particularly at a time when the world is witnessing a hunger turmoil, this award constitutes not just the recognition of it but the means to approach the challenge based on the results of their experimental studies of nearly three decades on the problem.
Michael Kremer’s work in Kenya in the 1990s was the beginning sowing the seeds of the larger body of work in this field ; the works of Ether Duflo and Abhijit Banerjee helped deepen and broaden the approach and the conduct of investigations combining the contributions well. Influencing factors as education, health, agriculture, teaching methods, and teacher’s role helped completely reshape research in economics to reach the final contribution of identifying effective ways of alleviating poverty.
Abhijit Banerjee’s work on the ‘right level of programs’ for intervention at the right time in the learning process was a major step in the process benefiting more than 60 million individuals in India and Africa. “Learning Crisis” was how they characterised the symptoms of the problem.
Their categorisation of the interventions that will work to achieve the goal of reducing poverty stems from their study of “Human Behaviour”. Just increasing the school inputs without the needed reforms will not prove beneficial is one of their conclusions.
About 700 million people live in extreme poverty ; one in three children are malnourished ; many children leave school because of the lack of basic amenities – induced them to make an analysis of cause of poverty, cause of policies and cost effectiveness while identifying the approach, means, and ways to reduce poverty. The study made massive progress in the last three decades with work from more than 100 researchers many from China included. In effect it was a collective work as any experimental research will entail. Time is right now for the award, as one of the members of the announcing team emphasized.
Two factors need special mention in conclusion :
1. At a time when many, including economists, hold the view that the Nobel studies in the last 50 years seemed good at framing problems and offering insights but not delivering answers or solutions, this award with a clear sense of problem diagnosis, approach, experimental work, empirical data, analysis, and inferences for interventions constitute a break in the mold in terms of clear evidence.
2. “Nobel Committee usually recognises past contributions without any specific move to influence future” – this award for the work on poverty alleviation will certainly influence and spur the temper and activities of future work in a host of Institutions around the world in Experimental and Behavioral economy enhancing the utilitarian point of view simultaneously.
“Dieu avec nous”
Monday, October 14, 2019 – 4.49 p.m. (IST)
Tidbit : ” More and more women are entering Economic Sciences “. – member, Committee announcing the Nobel Prize, 2019.
The most coveted five letter word is “peace” and not money, honey, music, dance, faith, glory, dress, photo, even Bible or Quran.
Securing the five letter word “peace” will give all the best of all good five letter words crowning the owner, ‘supercalifragilisticexpialidocious’.
Ethiopian Prime Minister, Abiy Ahmed Ali, (43), today secured “peace” not just for himself but for all nations and stakeholders who are part of this socially beneficial exercise.
Norwegian Nobel Committee today awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to Ethiopian Prime Minister, Abiy Ahmed Ali, who sought “Reconciliation, Solidarity, and Social Justice” through his efforts to achieve peace and International Cooperation and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the Border Conflict with the neighbouring Eritrea. He is selected by the Committee as the person who contributed most to peace in the last 12 months.That he is one among 301 nominees in this category speaks volumes for the recognition of his leadership too.
The Nobel Committee this time has stuck to its tradition of awarding the peace price to ‘diplomats or political leaders’.
Since he became Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Abiy Ahmed Ali, had concentrated his focus on ‘ lifting emergency, releasing 1000s of political prisoners, unblocking hundreds of media outlets, lifting bans on opposition parties, and prosecuting human rights abusers’. These transformative efforts have been viewed as commendable, specially in an era where democracy and human rights are seemingly on the decline in most parts of the world.
Ethiopian Prime Minister put an end to the continuance of border disputes between Ethiopia and Eritrea and signed peace agreement with the Eritrean President, Isaias Afwerki, paving the way out of the two decades old conflict. He is convinced that ‘peaceful, stable, and successful’ Ethiopia will have positive side effects and help strengthen fraternity and nations. Many other challenges remain unresolved, though. Keeping desires under check, and blending new initiatives with acts that benefit the Society will be paramount.
Ethiopia is Africa’s 2nd most populous country and East Africa’s largest economy. His efforts deserve recognition and encouragement – said the Norwegian Nobel Committee while announcing the award. It is also a recognition of all stakeholders working for peace and reconciliation in Ethiopia and in the East and North East African regions, it added.
This award is also a recognition of youth.
If this sets the tone for the resolution of similar conflicts for peace in other regions of the world, it would be a great turning point to universal peace in the history of the world.
” Dieu avec nous “
Friday, October 11, 2019 – 3.49 p.m. (IST)
Tidbit : ” Peace does not arise from one party alone. When Ethiopian Prime Minister reached out his hand Eritrean President, Afwerki, grasped it.”
” Nobel Prize for Chemistry 2019 – Giant leap in Battery Development for the Mankind ” – October 9, 2019.
Power and virtue flowing from the Climate Change conundrum found a fitting and excellent expression in the Nobel Prize for Chemistry announced today.
The 2019 Nobel Prize for Chemistry has been awarded to John B Goodenough, M Stanley Whittingham, and Akira Yoshino – “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced today.
John B Goodenough is the oldest member (97) to be awarded this highly prestigious medal.
From small to large gadgets/devices/products – mobile phones to bicycles and cars – gets the fillip needed in terms of a power source that is environmentally beneficial.
In-depth research that started in 1971 went through several hurdles finding the right anode and cathode, that which can give the electron relatively easily for building the charge, taming the reactivity of the lithium ion with water, using layered titanium disulphide and later Cobalt oxide for lithium ions to leak better, use of carbonaceous material, utilizing high potential of Oxygen astutely, and making the working efficient through hundreds of trials are just a few of the challenges that the scientists had to pass through successfully.
Why is this phenomenal ?
First, the battery is the marriage between Chemistry and Technology drawing from actually three disciplines – chemistry, physics, and engineering.
Second, the benefits are reaped in terms of knowledge and application in real life events and situations.
Third, it has the potential to trigger high impact devices and products to be made without much damage to the external environment.
Fourth, satisfying the best qualities for batteries in terms of being “light weight, rechargeable, and powerful”.
Fifth, serving as the harbinger for guiding access and path to future technological revolution.
Sixth, this will mark the shift from fossil fuel driven products to electronic ones.
Seventh, that the batteries can store energy from renewables like the solar and wind can promote added enthusiasm to other forms of energy improving the job opportunities.
What is significant ?
For nearly 30 years the lithium-ion batteries (since its commercialisation in 1991) have not been surpassed by any other new technology placing it in a league of its own.
Future : What the batteries need in future is more lifespan and more energy packed inside. Aluminium as a better alternative to the existing cathode is thought of, but it expands and contracts too much during the cycle causing less than expected performance. Tsinghua University and MIT professors worked to solve the problem using nanoparticles. They found four-fold increase in capacity and three-fold increase in energy compared to graphite anodes with relatively easy scaling up to mass production. Next generation batteries may well use aluminium electrodes with longer battery life. If this happens, mobile devices, laptops, and other gadgets will get a big boost in terms of life span of a battery very soon. The battery life may well be a week, if not more than that.
“Dieu avec nous”
Wednesday, October 9, 2019 – 4.49 p.m. (IST)
Tidbit : ” ‘Curiosity’ and not money or fame was the driving force in this discovery” – Akira Yoshino, Nobel laureate.